Overview of the Product Life Cycle (PLC)

Product life cycle = stages of “life”

The product life cycle (PLC) is a very common concept across all marketing textbooks. From the words “life cycle”, you should see the connection between a product and a biological life. Just as … Read more...

The Maturity Phase of the PLC

Following the period of growth, a market will reach the maturity stage of its product life cycle. This means that there is limited growth – usually in line with the economy – left in the market. Sales have maximized and … Read more...

Top 100 Brands in the World

Brand equity is a financial valuation of the firm’s brand contribution to profit.

Most brand equity valuation firms – such as Millward Brown (as discussed in the link below) – look at brand equity on economic use basis.

So what

Read more...

Brand name selection

Selecting a brand name

One of the key decisions when bringing a new product to market, particularly if it is going to be under the umbrella of a new brand, is the brand name selection.

There are two approaches to … Read more...

What is a brand?

Definition of a brand

A brand can be defined as a name, sign, logo, or design of a product/ service or a firm designed to identify ownership and to differentiate the offering in the marketplace.

What are brand elements?

Most … Read more...

The role of packaging

Packaging decisions in marketing

When we think of packaging, we tend to think about packaging’s role of being recognized and attracting attention inside a store. While this is a key goal of packaging, there are actually many other goals of … Read more...

Product mix example


The overall product mix for a firm is the complete range of products that they offer in the marketplace. It is also sometimes referred to as their product assortment.

There are multiple decisions to make in regards to an overall … Read more...

Product mix decisions

What is a product mix?

A product mix is also referred to as a product assortment. It is the full range of products offered by a firm. As discussed in another article on this website, firms will have sets of … Read more...

Product line length

What is a product line?

A product line can be defined as a set of products offered by a company that are similar in function and benefit. These sets of products are also usually sold through the same distribution … Read more...

Product augmentation examples

A key opportunity to differentiate a product in the marketplace is by augmenting the product. This principle as highlighted in the product levels model of marketing, which highlights that a product should be considered on the basis of the following … Read more...